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Acetic Acid
Time:2019-11-11 13:12:57 Hit:312
 
Acetic acid, also known as acetic acid or glacial acetic acid, has the chemical formula CH₃COOH. It is an organic monobasic acid that is the source of sour and pungent odors in vinegar. Pure anhydrous acetic acid (glacial acetic acid) is a colorless and hygroscopic liquid, with a freezing point of 16.7C (62F), and becomes a colorless crystal after solidification.
English name: Acetic Acid
Other names: Glacial acetic acid, acetic acid
Relative density (water is 1): 1.050
Relative molecular weight: 60.05
Freezing point (): 16.6
Boiling point (): 117.9
Viscosity (mPa.s): 1.22 (20)
Vapor pressure at 20C (KPa): 1.5
Simple structure: CH₃COOH
CAS Number: 64-19-7
Content: 99%
Appearance and smell: colorless liquid with pungent vinegar smell.
Solubility: soluble in organic solvents such as water, ethanol, ether, carbon tetrachloride and glycerin.
Compatibility: Material: After dilution, it is strongly corrosive to metals. 316# and 318# stainless steel and aluminum can be used as good structural materials.
Acetic acid is a colorless liquid with a strong pungent sour taste at room temperature. The melting point of acetic acid is 16.6C (289.6 K). The boiling point is 117.9C (391.2 K). The relative density is 1.05, the flash point is 39, and the explosion limit is 4% to 17% (volume). Pure acetic acid freezes into ice crystals when it is below the melting point, so anhydrous acetic acid is also called glacial acetic acid.
Preparation
Aerobic fermentation
In human history, acetic acid in the form of vinegar has always been prepared by bacteria of the genus Acetobacter. With sufficient oxygen, these bacteria can produce acetic acid from foods containing alcohol. Usually used is cider or wine mixed with grains, malt, rice or potatoes and fermented. The chemical equation reached by these bacteria is:
C2H5OH + O2 CH3COOH + H2O
The method is to inoculate the acetobacter bacteria in the diluted alcohol solution and keep it at a certain temperature, and place it in a ventilated place, which can become vinegar within a few months. The industrial method of producing vinegar speeds up this process by providing oxygen. It is one of the methods used in commercial production now, and is called the "quick method" or "German method" because the first success was in 1823 in Germany. In this method, fermentation is carried out in a tower filled with wood chips or charcoal. Alcohol-containing raw materials drip in from the top of the tower, and fresh air naturally enters or forced convection from below it. The improved air supply enables this process to be completed within a few weeks, greatly shortening the vinegar production time.
Most of today's vinegar is prepared by liquid bacterial culture, first proposed by Otto Hromatka and Heinrich Ebner in 1949. In this method, alcohol is fermented into acetic acid under continuous stirring, and air is filled into the solution in the form of bubbles. With this method, vinegar containing 15% acetic acid can be prepared in two to three days.
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